Pesticide residue analysis is a crucial component of ensuring food safety and quality. It is a scientific process that involves the detection and quantification of pesticide residues in agricultural commodities. Pesticides are chemical substances used to protect crops from pests, diseases, and weeds. While they play a vital role in enhancing agricultural productivity, their presence as residues in food can pose potential risks to human health and the environment. The analysis of pesticide residues is essential for several reasons. First and foremost, it helps regulatory authorities enforce maximum residue limits (MRLs) established to ensure that the levels of pesticide residues in food products do not exceed acceptable safety standards. By conducting routine analyses, food regulatory agencies can detect any violations and take necessary actions to safeguard public health. Furthermore, pesticide residue analysis is instrumental in evaluating the compliance of farmers, agricultural producers, and food processors with good agricultural practices (GAPs) and good manufacturing practices (GMPs). These guidelines provide recommendations on the appropriate and responsible use of pesticides, including their proper application, dosage, and timing. Analyzing pesticide residues enables the verification of adherence to these practices, thereby promoting sustainable and safe food production systems. The analysis of pesticide residues involves a multi-step process. It typically begins with sample collection, where representative samples of crops, fruits, vegetables, or processed food products are obtained from farms, markets, or processing facilities. These samples are carefully handled and stored to maintain their integrity until analysis. The next step is sample preparation, which involves extracting pesticide residues from the sample matrix. Various extraction techniques, such as solid-phase extraction or liquid-liquid extraction, may be employed to isolate the target residues. The extracted residues are then purified and concentrated to improve detection sensitivity. Once the residues are extracted and concentrated, analytical methods are employed to identify and quantify them. Sophisticated techniques such as gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) are commonly used for pesticide residue analysis. These techniques offer high selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy, allowing for the detection and quantification of numerous pesticide compounds at low concentrations. In addition to laboratory analysis, advancements in technology have led to the development of rapid screening methods for pesticide residue analysis. These methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and biosensors, provide quick and cost-effective screening tools that can identify the presence of specific pesticide residues in a large number of samples. Positive screening results are then confirmed through more comprehensive and accurate laboratory analysis. Pesticide residue analysis is an ongoing process, constantly evolving to keep pace with new pesticide formulations, emerging contaminants, and increasingly stringent regulatory requirements. Laboratories conducting such analyses must adhere to rigorous quality assurance and quality control protocols to ensure the reliability and accuracy of results. In conclusion, pesticide residue analysis plays a vital role in ensuring food safety and quality. By detecting and quantifying pesticide residues in agricultural commodities, this analysis helps regulatory authorities enforce MRLs, verify compliance with GAPs and GMPs, and protect public health. Through careful sample collection, preparation, and advanced analytical techniques, laboratories provide essential information to support sustainable and responsible food production systems. Continuous advancements in technology further enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of pesticide residue analysis, contributing to the overall safety and quality of our food supply.